The term “learning disabilities”, sometimes referred to as specific learning disabilities, is an umbrella term that covers a range of neurologically based disorders in learning and various degrees of severity of such disorders. Predecessor terms include: minimal brain damage and minimal brain dysfunction.

Broadly speaking, these disorders involve difficulty in one or more, but not uniformly in all, basic psychological processes: (1) input (auditory and visual perception), (2) integration (sequencing, abstraction, and organization),

Learning Disabilities

(3) memory (working, short term, and long term memory), (4) output (expressive language), and (5) motor (fine and gross motor).
Learning disabilities vary from individual to individual and may present in a variety of ways. Learning disabilities may manifest as difficulty: (1) processing information by visual and auditory, means, which may impact upon reading, spelling, writing, and understanding or using language, (2) prioritizing, organizing, doing mathematics, and following instructions, (3) storing or retrieving information from short or long term memory, (4) using spoken language, and (5) clumsiness or difficulty with handwriting.
Learning disabilities are not emotional disturbances, intellectual disabilities (formerly termed mental retardation), or sensory impairments. They are not caused by inadequate parenting or lack of educational opportunity.
Cognitive assessment, including psychoeducational or neuropsychological evaluation, is of critical importance in diagnosing a learning disability. Learning disabilities may be diagnosed by qualified school or educational psychologists, by clinical psychologists, and by clinical neuropsychologists who are trained and experienced in the assessment of learning disabilities.